Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use,—they may be pure modifiers of nouns, or they may stand for nouns. In the first use they are adjectives; in the second they retain an adjective meaning, but have lost their adjective use. Primarily they are adjectives, but in this function, or use, they are properly classed as adjective pronouns.
The following are some examples of these:—
Some say that the place was bewitched.—Irving.That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.—Bryant.How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.—Wotton
That is more than any martyr can stand.—Emerson.
Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns, which we have seen in such expressions as, "The dead are there;" that is, a word, in order to be an adjective pronoun, must not modify any word, expressed or understood. It must come under the requirement of pronouns, and stand for a noun. For instance, in the following sentences—"The cubes are of stainless ivory, and on each is written, in letters of gold, 'Truth;'" "You needs must play such pranks as these;" "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon, and another to get cool under;" "Where two men ride on a horse, one must ride behind"—the words italicized modify nouns understood, necessarily thought of: thus, in the first, "each cube;" in the second, "these pranks," in the others, "another bank," "one man."
Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:—
(1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, such as this, that, the former, etc.
(2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS, such as each, either, neither, etc.
(3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS, as some, any, few, many, none, all, etc.